I propose that a method `Array#difference` be added to the Ruby core. It is similar to [Array#-](http://ruby-doc.org/core-2.2.0/Array.html#method-i-2D) but for each element of the (array) argument it removes only one matching element from the receiver. For example: a = [1,2,3,4,3,2,2,4] b = [2,3,4,4,4] a - b #=>  c = a.difference b #=> [1, 3, 2, 2] As you see, `a` contains three `2`'s and `b` contains `1`, so the first `2` in `a` has been removed from `a` in constructing `c`. When `b` contains as least as many instances of an element as does `a`, `c` contains no instances of that element. It could be implemented as follows: class Array def difference(other) dup.tap do |cpy| other.each do |e| ndx = cpy.index(e) cpy.delete_at(ndx) if ndx end end end end Here are a few examples of its use: *Determine if two arrays of the same size contain the same elements* a = [2,1,4,2,5,3,3,1] b = [3,4,1,1,2,3,5,2] a.difference(b).empty? #=> true *Identify an array's unique elements* a = [1,3,2,4,3,4] u = a.uniq #=> [1, 2, 3, 4] u - a.difference(u) #=> [1, 2] *Determine if two words of the same size are anagrams of each other* w1, w2 = "stop", "pots" w1.chars.difference(w2.chars).empty? #=> true *Identify a maximal number of 1-1 matches between the elements of two arrays and return an array of all elements from both arrays that were not matched* a = [1, 2, 4, 2, 1, 7, 4, 2, 9] b = [4, 7, 3, 2, 2, 7] a.difference(b).concat(b.difference(a)) #=> [1, 1, 4, 2, 9, 3, 7] To remove elements from `a` starting at the end (rather the beginning) of `a`: a = [1,2,3,4,3,2,2,4] b = [2,3,4,4,4] a.reverse.difference(b).reverse #=> [1,2,3,2] `Array#difference!` could be defined in the obvious way.