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Feature #14982

Updated by jjyr (Jinyang Jiang) almost 2 years ago

Updated: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/14982#note-5 



 ## Why 

 Ruby has evaluation all class/module names in top-level context(aka TOPLEVEL_BINDING).  
 As a user we basically hard to know how many names in the current context, is causing chaos in some cases. For example: 

 case 1:  

 Put common used errors class in a single file, like below 

 ``` ruby 
 # utils/errors.rb 

 class FooError 
 end 

 class BarError 
 end 
 ``` 

 In other files under 'utils' we want to use those errors, so the best practice is to use `require_relative 'errors'` in each file we need. 

 ``` ruby 
 # utils/binary_helper.rb 

 # we forget require errors 

 module BinaryHelper 
 # ... 
   raise BarError 
 # ... 
 end 

 ``` 

 But sometime we may forget to require dependencies in a file, it's hard to notice because 
  if RubyVM already execute the requires we still can access the name BarError, 

 but if user directly to require 'utils/binary_helper', he/she will got an NameError. 


 case 2:  

 Two gems use same top-level module name, so we can't use them together 

 ## The Reason of The Problem 

 The reason is we let module author to decision which module user can use. ('require' is basically evaluation, highly dependent on the module author's design) 

 But we should let users control which names to use and available in context. As many other popular languages dose(Rust, Python..) 

 I think the solution is basically the same philosophy compares to refinement feature. 


 ## The Design 

 I propose an improved namespace to Ruby, to solve the problems and still compatible with the current Ruby module system. 

 ``` ruby 
 class Foo 
 end 

 # introduce Kernel#namespace 
 namespace :Hello do 
   # avoiding namespace chaos 
   # Foo -> NameError, can't access TOPLEVEL_BINDING directly 
  
   # Kernel#import method, introduce Foo name from TOPLEVEL_BINDING 
   import :Foo 

   # in a namespace user can only access imported name 
   Foo 

   # import constant to another alias name 
   # can avoid writing nested module/class names 
   import :"A::B::C::D", as: :E 

   # require then import, for convenient  
   import :"A::B::C::D", as: :E, from: 'some_rb_file' 

   # import same name from two gems 
   import :"Foo", as: :Foo_A, from: 'foo_a' 
   import :"Foo", as: :Foo_B, from: 'foo_b' 

   # import names in batch 
   import %i{"A::B::C::D", "AnotherClass"}, from: 'some_rb_file' 

   # import and alias in batch 
   import {:"A::B::C::D" => :E, :Foo => Foo2}, from: 'some_rb_file' 

   class Bar 
     def xxx 
       # can access all names in namespace scope 
       [Foo, Foo_A, Foo_B] 
     end 
   end 
 end 

 Hello.class #    -> module. namespace is just a module 
 Hello::Bar # so we do not broken current ruby module design 

 # namespace system is intent to let user to control names in context 
 # So user can choose use the old require way 

 require 'hello' 

 Hello::Bar 


 # Or user can use namespace system as we do in hello.rb 

 namespace :Example do 
   import :"Hello::Bar", as: :Bar 
   Bar # ok 
   Foo # name error, cause we do not import Foo in :Example namespace 
 end 

 Foo # ok, cause Foo is loaded in TOPLEVEL_BINDING 

 # define nested namespace 

 # more clear syntax than “module Example::NestedExample” 
 namespace :NestedExample, under: Example do 
 end 

 namespace :Example2 do 
   namespace :NestedExample do 
   end 
 end 

 ``` 

 Pros: 

 * Completely compatible with the current module system, a gem user can completely ignore whether a gem is write in Namespace or not. 
 * User can completely control which names in current context/scope. 
 * May solve the top module name conflict issue(depends on VM implementation). 
 * Avoid introducing new keyword and syntax. 
 * Type hint or name hint can be more accuracy under namespace(not sure). 

 Cons: 

 * Need to modify Ruby VM to support the feature. 

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