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Bug #17649

closed

`defined?` invokes method once for each syntactic element around it

Added by josh.cheek (Josh Cheek) 4 months ago. Updated 3 months ago.

Status:
Closed
Priority:
Normal
Assignee:
-
Target version:
-
ruby -v:
ruby 3.0.0p0 (2020-12-25 revision 95aff21468) [x86_64-darwin20]
[ruby-core:<unknown>]

Description

Honestly, I was surprised defined? works with expressions at all. I wouldn't object to this feature being removed, it leads to strange situations where it invokes methods, like below, and silently returns wrong results, if any of the methods raise. But, given that it is implemented this way, it should probably not be invoking methods multiple times like this.

public def x
  $times_called += 1
end

def times_called
  $times_called = 0
  yield
  $times_called
end

# without `defined?`
times_called { x }           # => 1
times_called { -x }          # => 1
times_called { --x }         # => 1
times_called { ---x }        # => 1
times_called { x+0+0 }       # => 1
times_called { x.pred.pred } # => 1
times_called { x.x.x.x.x.x } # => 6

# with `defined?`
times_called { defined? x }           # => 0
times_called { defined? -x }          # => 1
times_called { defined? --x }         # => 2
times_called { defined? ---x }        # => 3
times_called { defined? x+0+0 }       # => 2
times_called { defined? x.pred.pred } # => 2
times_called { defined? x.x.x.x.x.x } # => 15

Related issues

Related to Ruby master - Bug #13708: catastrophic slow compilation of defined-defined sequence has no chance to ^CClosedActions
Actions #1

Updated by josh.cheek (Josh Cheek) 4 months ago

I should have clarified my expectation: On the ones that call defined? I expected the number of calls to be 1 less than the ones that don't call defined?

Actions #2

Updated by josh.cheek (Josh Cheek) 4 months ago

The reason seems to be because the generated iseq doesn't cache the intermediate calculations:

$ ruby -e 'puts RubyVM::InstructionSequence.new("defined? a.b.c.d.e.f").disasm'
== disasm: #<ISeq:<compiled>@<compiled>:1 (1,0)-(1,20)> (catch: TRUE)
== catch table
| catch type: rescue st: 0001 ed: 0071 sp: 0000 cont: 0073
| == disasm: #<ISeq:defined guard in <compiled>@<compiled>:0 (0,0)-(-1,-1)> (catch: FALSE)
| local table (size: 1, argc: 0 [opts: 0, rest: -1, post: 0, block: -1, kw: -1@-1, kwrest: -1])
| [ 1] $!@0
| 0000 putnil
| 0001 leave
|------------------------------------------------------------------------
0000 putnil                                                           (   1)[Li]
0001 putself
0002 defined                                func, :a, false
0006 branchunless                           73
0008 putself
0009 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0011 defined                                method, :b, false
0015 branchunless                           73
0017 putself
0018 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0020 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0022 defined                                method, :c, false
0026 branchunless                           73
0028 putself
0029 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0031 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0033 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:c, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0035 defined                                method, :d, false
0039 branchunless                           73
0041 putself
0042 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0044 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0046 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:c, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0048 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:d, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0050 defined                                method, :e, false
0054 branchunless                           73
0056 putself
0057 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0059 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0061 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:c, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0063 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:d, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0065 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:e, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0067 defined                                method, :f, true
0071 swap
0072 pop
0073 leave

Updated by jeremyevans0 (Jeremy Evans) 4 months ago

I submitted a pull request that should fix this: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/4213

Actions #4

Updated by jeremyevans0 (Jeremy Evans) 4 months ago

  • Related to Bug #13708: catastrophic slow compilation of defined-defined sequence has no chance to ^C added
Actions #5

Updated by jeremyevans (Jeremy Evans) 3 months ago

  • Status changed from Open to Closed

Applied in changeset git|7b3c5ab8a5825a2b960e639d257f0c8a69c4186c.


Make defined? cache the results of method calls

Previously, defined? could result in many more method calls than
the code it was checking. defined? a.b.c.d.e.f generated 15 calls,
with a called 5 times, b called 4 times, etc.. This was due to
the fact that defined works in a recursive manner, but it previously
did not cache results. So for defined? a.b.c.d.e.f, the logic was
similar to

return nil unless defined? a
return nil unless defined? a.b
return nil unless defined? a.b.c
return nil unless defined? a.b.c.d
return nil unless defined? a.b.c.d.e
return nil unless defined? a.b.c.d.e.f
"method"

With this change, the logic is similar to the following, without
the creation of a local variable:

return nil unless defined? a
_ = a
return nil unless defined? _.b
_ = _.b
return nil unless defined? _.c
_ = _.c
return nil unless defined? _.d
_ = _.d
return nil unless defined? _.e
_ = _.e
return nil unless defined? _.f
"method"

In addition to eliminating redundant method calls for defined
statements, this greatly simplifies the instruction sequences by
eliminating duplication. Previously:

0000 putnil                                                           (   1)[Li]
0001 putself
0002 defined                                func, :a, false
0006 branchunless                           73
0008 putself
0009 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0011 defined                                method, :b, false
0015 branchunless                           73
0017 putself
0018 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0020 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0022 defined                                method, :c, false
0026 branchunless                           73
0028 putself
0029 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0031 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0033 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:c, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0035 defined                                method, :d, false
0039 branchunless                           73
0041 putself
0042 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0044 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0046 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:c, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0048 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:d, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0050 defined                                method, :e, false
0054 branchunless                           73
0056 putself
0057 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0059 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0061 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:c, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0063 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:d, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0065 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:e, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0067 defined                                method, :f, true
0071 swap
0072 pop
0073 leave

After change:

0000 putnil                                                           (   1)[Li]
0001 putself
0002 dup
0003 defined                                func, :a, false
0007 branchunless                           52
0009 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:a, argc:0, FCALL|VCALL|ARGS_SIMPLE>
0011 dup
0012 defined                                method, :b, false
0016 branchunless                           52
0018 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:b, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0020 dup
0021 defined                                method, :c, false
0025 branchunless                           52
0027 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:c, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0029 dup
0030 defined                                method, :d, false
0034 branchunless                           52
0036 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:d, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0038 dup
0039 defined                                method, :e, false
0043 branchunless                           52
0045 opt_send_without_block                 <calldata!mid:e, argc:0, ARGS_SIMPLE>
0047 defined                                method, :f, true
0051 swap
0052 pop
0053 leave

This fixes issues where for pathological small examples, Ruby would generate
huge instruction sequences.

Unfortunately, implementing this support is kind of a hack. This adds another
parameter to compile_call for whether we should assume the receiver is already
present on the stack, and has defined? set that parameter for the specific
case where it is compiling a method call where the receiver is also a method
call.

defined_expr0 also takes an additional parameter for whether it should leave
the results of the method call on the stack. If that argument is true, in
the case where the method isn't defined, we jump to the pop before the leave,
so the extra result is not left on the stack. This requires space for an
additional label, so lfinish now needs to be able to hold 3 labels.

Fixes [Bug #17649]
Fixes [Bug #13708]

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