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Bug #20587

open

dir.c calls blocking filesystem APIs/system calls while holding the GVL

Added by ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) 24 days ago. Updated 1 day ago.

Status:
Open
Assignee:
-
Target version:
-
[ruby-core:118347]

Description

Hey! I work for Datadog on the Ruby profiler part of the datadog (previously ddtrace) gem.

While I was investigating https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/20586, I spotted that there's a number of cases where, in dir.c, blocking system calls are being made (e.g. readdir(), opendir(), ... see comments for more detailed list...) without releasing the GVL.

This means that if they block for a long time (as happens in the gcsfuse example in https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/20586 ), the Ruby VM will just be blocked and not make any progress.

The combination of not releasing the GVL + slow system calls actually makes the issue in https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/20586 more likely to happen with the Datadog profiler, although even if the code releases the GVL the underlying issue could still happen, and this is why I decided to file this bug separately.


Files

repro.rb (1.18 KB) repro.rb ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo), 07/12/2024 11:31 AM
hello.c (4.89 KB) hello.c ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo), 07/12/2024 11:33 AM
Actions #1

Updated by ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) 24 days ago

  • Subject changed from dir.c calls blocking system calls while holding the GVL to dir.c calls blocking filesystem APIs/system calls while holding the GVL

Updated by jeremyevans0 (Jeremy Evans) 5 days ago

@ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) Can you be specific about which places this affects? I examined all opendir calls in dir.c:

  • Called in nogvl_opendir
  • Called in opendir_without_gvl when VM is not initialized
  • Called in nogvl_opendir_at
  • Called in nogvl_dir_empty_p

Tracing those function calls, if the VM is initialized, it appears that all calls use the IO_WITHOUT_GVL macro to release the GVL around the call.

Updated by ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) 4 days ago ยท Edited

jeremyevans0 (Jeremy Evans) wrote in #note-2:

@ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) Can you be specific about which places this affects? I examined all opendir calls in dir.c:

  • Called in nogvl_opendir
  • Called in opendir_without_gvl when VM is not initialized
  • Called in nogvl_opendir_at
  • Called in nogvl_dir_empty_p

Tracing those function calls, if the VM is initialized, it appears that all calls use the IO_WITHOUT_GVL macro to release the GVL around the call.

Hey Jeremy, thanks for taking a look at this!

You are right -- I think I was overeager in including opendir on the list. I'll update my original description to correct for this.

Here's my attempt at a more specific report of blocking calls while holding the GVL in dir.c (I've omitted cases where the GVL is released):

  • fdopendir -> called by dir_s_for_fd
  • readdir -> called by dir_read, dir_each_entry, glob_helper, glob_getent
  • chdir -> called by dir_chdir0 (Although this one is somewhat weird already so perhaps it being blocking is not the weirdest part?)
  • fchdir -> called by dir_fchdir (same as chrdir)
  • chroot -> called by dir_s_chroot
  • lstat -> called by do_lstat
  • stat -> called by do_stat
  • fstatat -> called by do_stat/do_lstat
  • fgetattrlist -> called by need_normalization, is_case_sensitive
  • getattrlist -> called by is_case_sensitive, replace_real_basename, rb_dir_s_empty_p, need_normalization, dir_initialize
  • getpwnam -> called by dir_s_home
Actions #4

Updated by ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) 4 days ago

  • Description updated (diff)

Updated by jeremyevans0 (Jeremy Evans) 3 days ago

@ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) Thank you for your analysis. I worked on a pull request that handles most of the system calls you listed: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/11147

It doesn't handle getattrlist or fgetattrlist, because I wasn't able to test with those (they appear to be Mac OS only).

Could you test that pull request and see if it addresses the issues you were seeing? If so and it fixes the issues, I can work on getattrlist and fgetattrlist and rely on CI to check that it works on Mac OS. I can also work on getpwnam and other system calls in process.c and ext/etc/etc.c that are mentioned in the pull request.

Updated by ivoanjo (Ivo Anjo) 1 day ago

Nice!

I've tried the PR and it actually makes the issue in https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/20586#How-to-reproduce disappear in my tests.

(It does not fully solve the issue, but what made it trigger a lot more often was that the readdir call blocked with the GVL held, since the Datadog profiler tries to interrupt only threads holding the GVL. With the GVL released, this can only happen in the remote chance the profiler decided to interrupt the thread just as it was preparing to call readdir).

I also decided recover an old experiment I had to try to trigger some of these problems using a custom "adversarial" FUSE filesystem. Here's my script to trigger the syscalls:

$liveness = true
$looping = false
liveness_check = Thread.new do
  print "Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) "
  while $liveness do
    print '.'
    before_sleep = Time.now
    $looping = true
    sleep 0.1
    delay = Time.now - before_sleep
    puts "\n[HICCUP -- VM was probably blocked for #{delay - 0.1}s!]" if delay > 0.5
  end
end
Thread.pass while !$looping

directory = ARGV.last
result = case ARGV.first.to_sym
when :readdir
  d = Dir.new(directory)
  print "(Opened!)"
  d.children
when :fdopendir
  # This one doesn't seem to work as a reproducer, the opendir for d0 seems to get reused by libc and that one already
  # released the GVL
  raise 'Broken?'
  d0 = Dir.new(directory)
  d1 = Dir.for_fd(d0.fileno)
  d1.to_s
when :chdir
  Dir.chdir(directory) { }
when :fchdir
  d = Dir.new(directory)
  print "(Opened!)"
  d.chdir { }
when :chroot
  begin
    Dir.chroot(directory)
  rescue => e
    e
  end
when :lstat
  Dir.glob("#{directory}/*", File::FNM_DOTMATCH)
when :stat
  Dir.glob("#{directory}/", File::FNM_DOTMATCH)
when :fstatat
  raise 'Did not figure out this one?'
else
  raise "Unknown syscall #{ARGV.first}"
end

$liveness = false
liveness_check.join

puts "\n#{result.inspect}"

...and here's how it looks before your PR:

$ ./miniruby repro.rb readdir /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ........................................(Opened!)
[HICCUP -- VM was probably blocked for 1.9858527449999999s!]

["hello"]
$ ./miniruby repro.rb chdir /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) .
[HICCUP -- VM was probably blocked for 1.9008266639999998s!]

nil
$ ./miniruby repro.rb fchdir /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ........................................(Opened!)
[HICCUP -- VM was probably blocked for 1.987699879s!]

nil
$ ./miniruby repro.rb chroot /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) .
[HICCUP -- VM was probably blocked for 1.9008783179999997s!]

#<Errno::EPERM: Operation not permitted @ dir_s_chroot - /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme>
$ ./miniruby repro.rb lstat /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ........................................
[HICCUP -- VM was probably blocked for 3.9877458889999997s!]

["/home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme/.", "/home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme/hello"]
$ ./miniruby repro.rb stat /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) .
[HICCUP -- VM was probably blocked for 1.9009780909999998s!]

["/home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme/"]

...here's how it looks after your PR:

$ ./miniruby repro.rb readdir /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ........................................(Opened!)....................
["hello"]
$ ./miniruby repro.rb chdir /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ....................
nil
$ ./miniruby repro.rb fchdir /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ........................................(Opened!)....................
nil
$ ./miniruby repro.rb chroot /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ....................
#<Errno::EPERM: Operation not permitted @ dir_s_chroot - /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme>
$ ./miniruby repro.rb lstat /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ................................................................................
["/home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme/.", "/home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme/hello"]
$ ./miniruby repro.rb stat /home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme
Is Ruby alive? (Should print every 0.1s) ....................
["/home/ivo.anjo/tmp-hello-mount-deleteme/"]

I'm also attaching the "adversarial" FUSE filesystem -- I basically added a bunch of sleeps to https://github.com/libfuse/libfuse/blob/master/example/hello.c (my version attached), built the examples and mounted the filesystem.

Hopefully this helps, and thanks again for picking this one up :))

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